The Revue d’élevage et médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux (i.e. Journal of Tropical Livestock Science) is a scientific journal published by the Center for International Cooperation in Agronomic Research for Development (CIRAD). It has an international editorial board and publishes original articles and reviews, with four issues per year, in French or English. It is free of charge for authors and readers.
The journal is dedicated to the furthering of knowledge through promotion of original research, debates and reviews on livestock production, animal products, animal health and animal environments related to tropical, subtropical and Mediterranean regions. All species of animals reared in these regions are covered, i.e. native, exotic, wildlife and aquaculture species. Areas of interest include the various fields of animal science, e.g. physiology, nutrition, genetics, production and reproduction, veterinary science, systemic and holistic approaches such as analysis of farming systems, value chain analysis, epidemiological and ecopathological studies, and environmental analysis. Five categories cover all these fields: i) Livestock farming systems and value chains, ii) Environment and territories, iii) Animal production and animal products, iv) Feed resources and animal feeding, and v) Animal health and epidemiology.
Any manuscript may be submitted if it meets the criteria in the ‘Ethics’ section below and if it fits into one of the following types:
For articles and meta-analyses, the following structure should be adhered to: title and summary (in French and English), introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, conclusion, acknowledgments (if applicable), references, figures and/or tables. Further information may be published as supplementary material.
Short articles corresponding to limited-range tests, clinical cases, or descriptive analysis results. A short article has the same sections as those of an article mentioned above, but ‘Results and Discussion’ are merged into one section. The number of references is limited to 20. The number of figures and/or tables combined is limited to three. The total number of words is limited to 3000, excluding summary, references, figures and tables.
Reviews exploring the literature on a current topic or developing an opinion piece on scientific themes generating debate. This may be an editor’s request to an author renowned for his or her knowledge of a given subject. The section headings are left to the discretion of the authors. The number of references is not limited.
Proceedings of scientific meetings including a selection of results presented at scientific events (e.g. conferences or workshops) may be judged to warrant a thematic issue by the event organizers or at the invitation of the editors. These contributions are treated as original articles and undergo the same peer-review process. Their structure should be identical to that of articles. Exceptions can be made to this rule if the subject is not suitable for this structure.
The authors guarantee:
Authors are asked to certify each of these points upon submission of their text.
Manuscripts may be written in French or English, according to the authors’ preference. The title and summary must be written in both languages and must contain the same information. Before submitting articles to the journal, every manuscript must be reviewed by a person of the same language as that in which the manuscript was written. Authors must select the most appropriate category for their article (see the above section ‘Journal objectives and areas of interest’) when submitting their manuscript.
Manuscripts should be sent in Word format, or in a freely available word processing format such as OpenOffice or LibreOffice, by email to the following address: firstname.lastname@example.org
During the initial assessment, the subject editors may reject any manuscript not corresponding to the journal’s field of interest or any manuscript not respecting the rules of presentation and writing described in the present “Instructions to Authors”.
Texts that meet these first criteria are then evaluated by two or three specialist reviewers in the field dealt with by the article. During the submission process, authors are invited to suggest competent reviewers in the field relevant to their manuscript but they must not have published an article with them for a period of at least three years. The editors identify relevant reviewers, and may or may not take into account those suggested by the authors. The reviewers’ identity remains anonymous.
Texts considered to be badly written, of poor scientific quality or which require major editing will be rejected. If a rewrite is required, it must be submitted within a maximum period of three months. If only minor revisions are necessary, the revised text must be submitted within one month. All reviewer recommendations are taken into account. In the event of a disagreement with a reviewer’s remarks, the author must clearly state the reasons why the recommended modifications should not be incorporated into the text. A letter summarizing all the modifications made in response to reviewers’ recommendations is included with the revised text.
Text is written with 1.5 line spacing. Lines and pages are numbered. Times New Roman 12 font is used. The title and subtitles are presented as follows: présentés selon l’exemple ci-après :
N.B. subtitles are not mandatory and are limited to three levels (see above last level allowed). For any given level, there should be at least two subtitles, e.g. 2.1.1. and 2.1.2.
Abbreviations and acronyms are explained on their first appearance in both the summary and the body of the article. Past or imperfect tenses should be used where events took place in the past (particularly in the ‘Materials and Methods’ and ‘Results’ sections). The passive voice is preferred: for instance, do not use “We measured body temperature at the start of the experiment,” but rather “Body temperature was measured at the start of the experiment.”
The title should be concise, explicit and reflect the content of the article. It contains a maximum of 150 characters or spaces. A running title is added and does not exceed 60 characters or spaces. The title and running title are written in both French and English. The first name is typed in lower case and is followed by the author’s FAMILY NAME in upper case. Each author’s family name is followed by a superscript number corresponding to his or her affiliation and full address (use the same numbers for the same addresses). The corresponding author is indicated by an ‘*’ and his or her professional telephone number and email address are given. It is not necessary to state the function or status of the authors.
[example : Innocent OUEDRAOGO 1, Mary Clarissa MILLER 2, Jean-Michel BARBEUC 3, Odile NDIAYE 1 *]
The summary is to be written in French and English. It does not exceed 200 words for a short article and 300 words in all other cases. It reminds the reader of the study, experiment or investigation, provides the main results and ends with a concluding sentence.
Five to seven keywords, indexed in FAO’s Agrovoc Thesaurus (http://aims.fao.org/standards/agrovoc/functionalities/search), separated by commas, are required to facilitate referencing in international databases. First enter the animal studied and end with the country where the study took place.
[example: swine, pork, cysticercosis, Taenia solium, surveillance, slaughterhouse,
The introduction aims to clarify the motive and objectives of the study. It should be relatively short and should not initiate a discussion, nor should it expand on generalities. For instance, if the article is devoted to the milk composition of a given species, it is useless to evoke the importance of the species in the world or in the country where the study took place, but it should provide information on the issue of milk composition for this particular species. It is vital to identify research questions that are to be answered in the paper. The last sentence should introduce the experiment, e.g. “We investigated the influence of nitrogen supplementation on ingestion, milk production, and composition of camel milk.”
This section should describe the animals studied and the techniques and methods used: animal, farm or study area characteristics (a map may be provided if necessary), study setup, equipment used, analyses (or reference or, if the reference cannot be found, the author must provide the necessary details for the text to be understood by the reader) including statistical analyses, and software used. Statistical analyses should be clearly explained (objectives, methods and tools).
This part does not contain any reference unless fused with the discussion in the case of short articles. It gives the most significant results in the text and refers the reader to tables or figures for more details. Apart from these particularly significant results, the text should not duplicate tables and/or figures. Significant decimal digits are accepted, otherwise it is necessary to round off numbers. Moreover, statistical values (including differences and correlations) must be specified, if significant.
The discussion focuses on the results of the study which are also compared to those in the literature. Crucially, it suggests interpretations of the results, it is not limited to comparisons with results of other authors. It includes a critical analysis of the results described in the previous section or published by other authors, and attempts to explain any discrepancies. The discussion must also state the limitations of the study and/or conversely its pioneering features. Do not repeat detailed results, except as part of a comparative discussion.
The conclusion is not a summary or a review of the results, except in order to give an overall vision of the study. It opens up new perspectives and indicates the extent or significance of the results. It should avoid sentences such as “further studies are needed to ...” but instead suggest specific topics for further study.
If necessary include an ‘Acknowledgments’ section for technical, financial or institutional contributors.
References are cited in the main text as “(Bastianelli, 2013)” for one author, “(Faye and Bengoumi, 2014)” for two authors, and “(Balança et al., 2007; Duteurtre et al., 2011)” for more than two authors without italics for ‘et al.’ and with a semicolon to separate multiple citations. They are listed in the References section in alphabetical order, then by increasing years of publication for the same authors. If there are two references or more from the same authors in the same year, the reference is worded with a letter after the year “(Goutard et al., 2015a; Goutard et al., 2015b)”. Journal titles are abbreviated according to ISO standards, available on the List of Title Word Abbreviations (LTWA) (www.issn.org/services/onlineservices/ access-to-the-ltwa/), volumes are boldface and followed by the issue number lightface and in brackets.
DOI: regardless of the type of document, if a DOI is present it must be added at the end of the reference, including unpublished papers accepted for publication elsewhere cited as ‘in press’.
All references cited in the main text must be present in the list and vice versa. All references citing the present journal must be in English, and ‘[in French]’ is added if English is not the original language.
The articles submitted for publication are considered unpublished. They are cited solely in the main text, e.g. “(Taylor, personal commun.)”, “(Taylor et al., unpubl. data.)”. The articles from the gray literature (internal reports, workshop communications, technical sheets, all types of unpublished documents) are not acceptable insofar as reviewer and future readers will have great difficulties to obtain them and check their contents.
List all the authors in each reference. Use the following examples in every detail for content and presentation:
Bechchari A., El Aich A., Mahyou H., Baghdad M., Bendaou M., 2014. Analysis of the evolution of the pastoral system of Eastern Morocco [in French]. Rev. Elev. Med. Vet. Pays Trop., 67 (4): 151-162
Chaka H., Thompson P.N., Goutard F., Grosbois V., 2015. Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and a haemagglutination inhibition tests for the detection of antibodies to Newcastle disease virus in village chickens using a Bayesian approach. Prev. Vet. Med., 119 (1-2): 21-30, doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2015.01.016
Faye B., Konuspayeva G., 2012. The sustainability challenge of the dairy sector. The growing importance of the non-cattle milk production worldwide. Int. Dairy J., 24 (2): 50-56
Stachurski F., Tortosa P., Rahajarison P., Jacquet S., Yssouf A., Huber K., 2013. New data regarding distribution of cattle ticks in the south-western Indian Ocean islands. Vet. Res., 44, 79 [N.B.: preceded here by a coma means that it is the article number (and not the page number which is preceded by colons)], doi: 10.1186/1297-9716-44-79
Bonnal L., Julien L., Delalande M., Bastianelli D., 2013. How can dry forages databases be used to predict fresh grass composition by NIRS? Data transfer vs spectra transfer. In: Proc. 16th International Conference on Near Infrared Spectroscopy (Eds. Bellon-Maure V., Willams P., Downey G.), La Grande-Motte, France, 2-7 June 2013. IRSTEA, Montpellier, France, 685-688
Batonon D.I., Houndonougbo F., Chrysostome C.A.A.M., Duteurtre G., Bastianelli D., Lescoat P., 2013. Dynamics of the egg supply chain in the Southern Benin. International Congress on Advancements in Poultry Production in the Middle East and African Countries, Antalya, Turkey, 21-25 Oct. 2013
Walker A.R., Bouattour A., Camicas J.-L., Estrada-Peña A., Horak I.G., Latif A.A., Pegram R.G., Preston P.M., 2003. Ticks of domestic animals in Africa: a guide to identification of species. BioScience Reports, University of Edinburg, UK, 227 p.
Tageldin M.H., Al-Zadjali S., Faye B., Al-Mugheiry S., 2013. Inspection of slaughtered dromedary camels. In: Camel meat and meat products (Eds. Kadim I., Maghoub O., Faye B., Farouk M.). CAB International, Oxfordshire, UK, 73-84
Ouma E.M., 2010. Management of trypanocidal drug resistance in cattle in identified chemoresistance hot spots in the administrative District of Sikasso, south-east Mali. Doct. Thesis, Freie Universitat, Berlin, Germany
Heuzé V., Tran G., Bastianelli D., Hassoun P., Renaudeau D., 2015. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) tubers. Feedipedia, INRA, CIRAD, AFZ, FAO, www.feedipedia.org/node/745 (accessed [day/month/year])
Arsevska E., Calavas D., Esmaile de Sales Lima F., Faye B., Hendrikx P., Lancelot R., Lefrançois T., Libeau G., 2014. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): which animal reservoir? www.ansespro.fr/bulletin-epidemiologique/Documents/Breve-MERS-CoV_2402.pdf (accessed [day/month/year])
Each figure (i.e. graphic, photo, map or other type of illustration) is sent in a separate file. The number of the figure is added onto the figure itself and to its file name. Figures are numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals and their location is indicated in the main text: “… (Figure 1)... (Figure 2).” They may be in color. Their legends are placed below them. They must be clear and understandable on their own (i.e. independently from the main text). All acronyms, abbreviations and symbols are defined. There must not be any overlap between figures and tables.
Each figure is sent in its original source (input) file so as to i) ensure the highest quality in the published article, and ii) enable the journal to access their contents when necessary: do not save figures in Word (or in any type of word processing software) as fixed images cannot be edited and lose much in quality following layout software processes. Thus:
The Calibri font is used for all characters (words, numbers...) in the graphs and in all the figures where some text is present.
The figures must not be too large in relation to their contents. All the words, symbols (circles, squares, diamonds…) or other elements must be clearly legible when the figure width is reduced to 85 mm, i.e. the final width of most figures in the journal.
Photos are saved in jpg, tiff or eps with the best possible definition, based on the following two reference models: for a width of about 85 mm, photo resolution files will be about 1200 pixels and at least 300 dpi; for a width of about 180 mm, photo resolution files will be about 2500 pixels and at least 300 dpi. Do not provide files optimized for the screen (e.g. GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG) because the resolution is too low.
To use figures published elsewhere, permission from the relevant publishers or authors (depending on their rights) is essential.
Tables are constructed using the Table function of MS Word or OpenOffice or LibreOffice. Each entry must be in a separate cell; do not use line breaks within cells. Significant decimal digits are accepted, otherwise it is necessary to round off numbers.
All the tables are gathered at the end of the article after the references but their locations are indicated in the main text, and they are numbered consecutively in Roman numerals: “… (Table I)... (Table II).” Titles are placed above the tables. They are sufficiently clear to enable their understanding independently for the main text. All abbreviations, acronyms and the likes must be defined. There should not be any redundancies between tables and figures.
Proofs of accepted texts are emailed to the corresponding author. They should be carefully read and returned to the editors within a short specified time period. After publication, the pdf articles serve as reprints and are available on the journal’s website.
Once a manuscript has been accepted for publication the “Author’s rights - Creative Commons License – Publication conditions” form needs to be filled out and quickly returned to the editorial office.
Elements non-essential to understanding the text but which the authors feel may be of interest to readers may accompany the article; they are added separately as ‘Supplementary Material’. They may be:
These supplementary materials are indicated in the text thus: “… (Supplementary Material I)... (Suppl. Mat. II).” They are examined by the reviewers along with the main text. Reviewers may refuse an item or request changes. Reviewers may also suggest that one or more tables or figures be provided as supplementary material. Supplementary material is not edited and is presented as is; it must be clear and intelligible. It is not an integral part of the article text but it is available on the site in a separate pdf file.